As the population of India surges and urbanization continues, the need for effective wastewater management becomes increasingly paramount. In many parts of the world, decentralized wastewater treatment systems have emerged as a viable solution to this problem. It’s high time we took over the conventional style of purifying water. Two popular options for decentralized wastewater treatment are septic tanks and decentralized sewage treatment plants (STPs). Let us see how the latter proves to be the best choice.

What are Septic Tanks?

Septic tanks are underground, watertight containers that treat wastewater in individual homes or small communities. The tank connects to the sewer system of the building, which collects wastewater from all the sinks, toilets, and appliances. In the septic tank, the wastewater separates into three layers: scum (floating material), effluent (liquid), and sludge (settling material). As the effluent moves through the septic tank, it undergoes anaerobic treatment, which breaks down some of the organic matter in the wastewater.

While septic tanks are relatively low-cost, low-maintenance options for wastewater treatment, they are ineffective at removing all contaminants. Septic systems can lead to groundwater pollution, which results in harmful pathogens and nitrates seeping into the groundwater. This pollution can lead to health problems for both humans and wildlife. Additionally, septic tanks must be regularly pumped and maintained to prevent system failure.

What are Decentralized Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs)?

Decentralized sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an alternative to septic tanks that use biological processes to treat wastewater. Small communities, residential areas, and commercial buildings use these systems. The decentralized STP systems use a method of biological treatment to remove contaminants from the wastewater. The process typically involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes. The treatment process can include activated sludge, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), and membrane bioreactors (MBRs).

Decentralized STPs are designed to handle larger volumes of wastewater than septic tanks, making them a more effective solution for larger communities or commercial buildings. These systems are also typically more effective at removing contaminants from the wastewater, making them a safer solution for groundwater and surface water sources. Additionally, decentralized STPs require less maintenance than septic tanks and do not require regular pumping.

Advantages of Decentralized STPs over Septic Tanks:

  1. More Effective Wastewater Treatment: Decentralized STPs are designed to remove a wide range of contaminants than septic tanks. In the decentralized STP process, the wastewater undergoes a more thorough treatment process, resulting in cleaner effluent. This effluent is safer for discharge into groundwater or surface water sources.
  1. Lower Maintenance: Decentralized STPs require less maintenance than septic tanks. Decentralized STPs have no moving parts and do not require regular pumping, which makes them a more low-maintenance option for wastewater treatment.
  1. Flexibility: Decentralized STPs are designed to handle a wide range of wastewater flows and quality. This flexibility makes them a good option for small residential communities, commercial buildings, and other locations where large volumes of wastewater need to be treated.
  1. Cost-Effective: While the initial installation cost of a decentralized STP may be higher than a septic tank, the long-term prices are typically lower. Decentralized STPs require less maintenance and have a longer lifespan than septic tanks, making them a cost-effective option with time.
  1. Safer for Groundwater and Surface Water: Decentralized STPs are more effective at removing contaminants from wastewater, which makes them a safer solution for groundwater and surface water sources. It is necessary for areas where drinking water is sourced from groundwater, as contamination can have serious health consequences

Decentralized STPs can be the right choice for several reasons, including:

  • Environmental Impact: Decentralized STPs can be more effective at removing contaminants from wastewater than septic tanks, which can help to protect groundwater and surface water sources. This can be particularly important in areas where drinking water is sourced from groundwater.
  • Regulatory Compliance: In many areas, decentralized STPs may be required to comply with local regulations regarding wastewater treatment. Choosing a decentralized STP can help ensure compliance with these regulations and avoid potential fines or other penalties.

In recent years, Daiki Axis has provided just the right choice for wastewater management. The company manufactures and exports such sewage treatment products that are scalable, reliable, and pollution-free. Daiki Axis’ decentralized STP Johkasou has changed the scenario of wastewater treatment. Its single FRP unit purifies water and channels it into local water bodies. Impaneled by the Ministry of Jal Shakti (Government of India), Daiki Axis’ Johkasou has won the first prize in Innovation in Water Technology by FICCI and is certified as GreenPro by CII.

Johkasou offers decentralized water treatment, which is a flexible and adaptable approach to providing clean and safe water to communities. Providing a reliable option for many communities, it can also be a cost-effective and efficient solution, particularly for those with limited access to infrastructure or changing water demands.